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This disease occurs as a result of the non-microbial inflammation of the airways, particularly due to cigarette smoke and other harmful gases and particles. This inflammation leads to the narrowing of the airways and the destruction of the small air sacs in the lungs (emphysema), typically manifesting in individuals aged 40 and above.

The narrowing of the airways and the progressive destruction of the tiny air sacs, known as alveoli, worsen over time. The airways, which are normally flexible and capable of expanding and contracting like a balloon, lose this characteristic.


Shortness of breath, which can occur during intense, fast-paced work or activities that require effort, such as climbing stairs or carrying heavy loads, is observed. This stage is also known as the initial stage of the disease.

Moderate COPD

Moderate COPD is a stage of the disease that does not disturb nighttime sleep but leads to shortness of breath during simple daily tasks.

Severe COPD

Severe COPD is a stage of the disease where shortness of breath disrupts even nighttime sleep, leading to weakness and fatigue due to respiratory distress. It significantly hinders the ability to perform daily tasks.

Very Severe COPD

In this stage, breathing becomes extremely difficult, and even walking within the home becomes challenging. Insufficient oxygen delivery to various organs leads to discomfort. As the lung disease progresses, heart failure can develop, and in such cases, the patient becomes unable to sustain life without oxygen support.